The purpose of this 3-year project is to maintain the positive growth trend in mountain gorilla populations by protecting ~25% of the Virunga population and their habitat in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. Activities include: 1) conducting regular anti-poaching patrols with the national parks service, recording illegal activity, and removing wire snares; 2) providing passive protection by maintaining a daily physical presence with the research population; 3) maintaining a long-term monitoring program and collecting essential data used to inform conservation management; 4) contributing data to the national Ranger-Based Monitoring Program; 5) collecting standardized health data and fecal samples used for veterinary management; and 6) building local capacity through training of Rwandan staff, collaborators, and Rwandan students from both the University of Rwanda and the Kitabi College of Conservation and Environmental Management.